January 8th, 2013
12:15 AM ET

Analysis: Study shows rise of al Qaeda affiliate in Syria

By Nic Robertson and Paul Cruickshank

A jihadist group with links to al Qaeda has become the most effective of the different factions fighting the regime, according to a new analysis, and now has some 5,000 fighters.

The group is Jabhat al-Nusra, which was designated an al Qaeda affiliate by the United States government last month. It is led by veterans of the Iraqi insurgency "and has shown itself to be the principal force against Assad and the Shabiha," according to the study.

CNN obtained an advance copy of the analysis, set to be released Tuesday by the Quilliam Foundation, a counterterrorism policy institute based in London.

"The civil war in Syria is a gift from the sky for al-Nusra; they are coasting off its energy," the lead author of the report, Noman Benotman, told CNN.

Benotman, a former prominent Libyan Jihadist who was personally acquainted with al Qaeda's top leaders including Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, consulted Western and regional intelligence officials as well as jihadists in Syria, including "al-Nusra sources."

And at a time of optimism that the global threat from al Qaeda terrorism has crested, the study will fuel anxiety in Western capitals that a powerful al Qaeda affiliate may become entrenched in the heart of the Arab world, creating deep challenges in any post- al-Assad Syria, and a new threat to international security.

What's next for Syria in 2013?

Founding meetings

Al-Nusra, according to the report, is a Syrian offshoot of al Qaeda in Iraq, aka AQI, the terror outfit founded by the Jordanian Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.

AQI was rebranded the "Islamic State of Iraq" after al-Zarqawi was killed by a U.S. missile strike in 2006. Since the pull-out of U.S. troops from Iraq, ISI has regained strength, feeding off the continued political and sectarian turbulence in Iraq.

When designating al-Nusra a terrorist group in December, the U.S State Department cast the group as "an attempt by AQI to hijack the struggles of the Syrian people for its own malign purposes."

"AQI emir Abu Du'a is in control of both AQI and al-Nusra. Du'a also issues strategic guidance to al-Nusra's emir, Abu Muhammad al-Jawlani, and tasked him to begin operations in Syria," the State Department said.

Benotman says that while Abu Du'a still has significant influence over al-Nusra, the key player in the group is al-Jawlani, a veteran Syrian jihadist who he says appears to have almost certainly been a former close associate of al-Zarqawi.

Al-Jawlani's "leadership is uncontested because of his experience in Iraq," the Quilliam Foundation report found. According to Benotman, al-Jawlani has taken painstaking measures not to reveal his real identity - including wearing a mask to meetings with some of al-Nusra's senior operatives. He was also masked when al-Nusra released a video in January 2012 to announce its formation.

AQI had built up an infrastructure in Syria, establishing safe-houses in Syria from which thousands of volunteers - including many Syrians - traveled to fight in Iraq. Al-Zarqawi's Syrian commanders were also the key channel for financial contributions from the Saudi and Gulf region.

Nada Bakos, a former CIA agent who for several years was the chief targeting officer tracking al-Zarqawi, told CNN that from the early days Syrians were amongst the inner circle of his network. "Some of these commanders are probably now part of al-Nusra," she said.

One Syrian among the inner circle of AQI was Sulayman Khalid Darwish. He's been reported killed in Iraq, but intelligence sources tell CNN his fate remains uncertain, raising the possibility he may now be playing a leadership role in al-Nusra.

According to Benotman, the ultimate aim of al-Nusra is the creation of an Islamic State in Syria and the Levant. To begin with, it set about recruiting fighters and training them, collecting weapons and creating safe havens.

The group suffered a severe setback in April 2012 after the arrest of an operative led to a significant number of members being detained in Damascus, but the group subsequently rebuilt its operations, placing greater emphasis on operational security, Benotman told CNN.

One precaution al-Nusra has taken is communicating through messengers rather than electronically, according to Benotman. "Their operational security is some of the best I've ever seen," he told CNN.

In addition, al-Nusra is "very selective about initiating new members, requiring "tezkiyya," or personal assurance, from two commanders on the front line stating that the recruit has the necessary skills, religious commitment and attitude to join the group," the Quilliam study says.

Morsy backs Syrian calls for al-Assad to face war crimes trial

From clandestine cells to insurgency

According to the U.S State Department, al-Nusra has claimed responsibility for nearly 600 attacks - "ranging from more than 40 suicide attacks to small arms and improvised explosive device operations - in major city centers including Damascus, Aleppo, Hama, Dara, Homs, Idlib, and Dayr al-Zawr."

Benotman says the group has also carried out executions of media professionals and assassinations of military officers and members of the pro-al-Assad Shabiha militia.

Al-Nusra also focuses on taking control of towns near major highways to control movement; it controls the highway between Aleppo and Hasakah, an important route to Iraq, according to the Quilliam report.

So far the group has only claimed one attack on Syrian government planes and helicopters which "would seem to demonstrate a lack of man-portable air-defence systems (MANPADs), consistent with the international effort to keep these weapons out of jihadist hands," according to the report.

Last month al-Nusra launched two of its most ambitious operations to date. On December 10, the group occupied parts of a military base near Aleppo and two days later claimed responsibility for a coordinated suicide and car bomb attack on the heavily guarded Interior Ministry in the capital.

Al-Nusra's signature tactic, like that of AQI, is using large car and truck bombs driven by suicide bombers. The group has launched several such attacks against security installations in Damascus and Aleppo, sometimes as part of a coordinated assault involving gunmen.

Benotman says that last Summer al-Nusra launched a recruitment drive for suicide bombers and began stockpiling trucks and explosives. He says that weapons shortages among rebel groups means that al-Nusra's campaign of suicide bombings has allowed it to punch above its weight.

Last week al-Nusra demonstrated the lethality of a new tactic - driverless car bombs operated by remote control, Benotman told CNN. He says the technology was used to destroy a gate at an airbase in Idlib and will raise fears that it could one day be used in an attack in the West.

If al-Nusra's fighting strength is some 5,000 members, as the Quilliam report estimates, that would be comparable to U.S. government estimates of AQI at the peak of the Iraq insurgency. But rebel commanders say that the group makes up less than 10% of the brigades fighting the regime.

While al-Nusra is mainly made up of Syrians, it includes a significant number of fighters from other Arab countries. In recent months a growing number have arrived from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf, but Iraqis and Jordanians constitute the majority of foreign fighters.

Al-Assad says enemies of Syria 'will go to hell'

Cooperation with other rebels

In recent months, videos featuring rebels fighting in Syria have increasingly featured joint-operations between al-Nusra and other rebel groups.

According to the Quilliam Foundation report, al-Nusra often cooperates with other jihadist and Islamist groups such as Sukour al-Sham, which has several thousand fighters, and even with the Free Syrian Army, in a number of strategic battles, though joint operations between these two groups have not been widespread.

According to Benotman, a significant number of Jihadists fighting with other rebel outfits are wary of al Qaeda's hard-line ideology, but al-Nusra has sought to allay concerns by keeping its brand separate from al Qaeda, avoiding targeting civilians, and refraining from spelling out its true agenda.

"Preserving good relations with the other groups and treating them well and turning a blind eye to their mistakes is the foundation in dealing with the other groups, as long as they don't change," al-Nusra leader Mohammed al-Jawlani said in a December audio tape, according to a translation by the SITE Intelligence Group.

Al-Nusra and nine other local Jihadist brigades announced last month they were forming a regional unified command structure called the Mujahideen Shura Council in Deir el-Zour.

Yet according to Benotman's report, al-Nusra has not yet formed any such coalitions with larger Islamist rebel outfits such as Ansar al-Islam, Ahrar al-Sham, and the Deir Ezzor Revolutionary Council, three groups which previously joined together to form the "Liberation Front."

A counterproductive designation?

According to the Quilliam study, "the designation (by the U.S.) of al-Nusra as a terrorist organization has only served to reinforce jihadist support for the group.

Nada Bakos, the former CIA agent agreed, telling CNN the designation may elevate al-Nusra's status amongst Jihadists worldwide, increasing funding and recruitment for the group.

Benotman's study describes relations between al-Nusra and the FSA as mixed, with both realizing they need each other in the short term to topple al-Assad.

"Some FSA brigades threaten to work with al-Nusra if the West does not provide enough weapons while others see al-Nusra as trying to exploit the revolution for their own ends, instead of working for the good of the country. Jabhat al-Nusra and the Free Syrian Army are wary of one another, as they are already vying for popularity amongst the population," Quilliam says.

Syrian children witness war


Bakos, the former CIA official says AQI and al-Nusra are likely replicating the flexible, decentralized, and resilient external operations networks established by al-Zarqawi in the region, and that makes them a force to be reckoned with. Benotman says the al-Zarqawi networks never really went away.

Analysts believe al-Nusra's hostility to the West could create an "over-the-horizon" threat to the United States and its allies if the group is able to secure a foothold in Syria and across the Levant.

In such a scenario al Qaeda aligned groups would be operating within touching distance of borders of Israel, improving their potential to launch a direct attack against the country, long a key proclaimed objective of the terrorist network's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

The Quilliam Foundation report is sobering reading at a time when increasing sectarian tension and regime brutality in Syria are playing into al-Nusra's hands.

Benotman believes al-Nusra doesn't want a quick end to the al-Assad regime.

"The longer the conflict goes on, the stronger they will get," he told CNN.

Post by:
Filed under: Al Qaeda • Syria
soundoff (1,259 Responses)
  1. SEO Marketing Firm

    Pretty! This has been an extremely wonderful post. Many thanks for supplying this information.


    June 23, 2021 at 7:15 pm | Reply
  2. jersey mike's near me

    After I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I get four emails with the exact same comment. Perhaps there is a means you are able to remove me from that service? Thanks a lot!


    June 23, 2021 at 5:43 pm | Reply
  3. RV Repair Near My Location


    June 23, 2021 at 4:54 pm | Reply
  4. stores open near me


    June 23, 2021 at 4:33 pm | Reply
  5. RV Chassis Repair Near Me


    June 23, 2021 at 1:49 pm | Reply
  6. black tapes podcast

    Everyone loves it when folks come together and share ideas. Great site, keep it up!


    June 23, 2021 at 11:43 am | Reply
  7. Internet Marketing Agencies

    Excellent article! We are linking to this great post on our site. Keep up the great writing.


    June 23, 2021 at 11:09 am | Reply
  8. Internet Marketing Experts

    Good post! We are linking to this great article on our website. Keep up the good writing.


    June 23, 2021 at 6:42 am | Reply
  9. Local Marketing Experts

    This blog was... how do you say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something that helped me. Thanks!


    June 23, 2021 at 6:16 am | Reply
  10. dan carlin podcast


    June 23, 2021 at 3:13 am | Reply
  11. sleepy podcast


    June 23, 2021 at 2:17 am | Reply
  12. Video Marketing Companies


    June 23, 2021 at 1:44 am | Reply
  13. RV Repair Store Near Me


    June 23, 2021 at 12:38 am | Reply
  14. cold ones podcast


    June 22, 2021 at 10:25 pm | Reply
  15. RV Air Conditioning Repair Near Me

    I love looking through a post that can make people think. Also, many thanks for permitting me to comment!


    June 22, 2021 at 7:59 pm | Reply
  16. Content Marketing Service

    Right here is the right web site for everyone who wishes to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want toÖHaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a topic that has been written about for a long time. Excellent stuff, just wonderful!


    June 22, 2021 at 7:56 pm | Reply
  17. RV Repair Near Me


    June 22, 2021 at 6:29 pm | Reply
  18. RV Roof Repair Service Near Me

    This is the perfect webpage for anybody who really wants to understand this topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I actually will need toÖHaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a subject that's been written about for decades. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!


    June 22, 2021 at 10:15 am | Reply
  19. Dodge Sprinter Repair Near Me


    June 22, 2021 at 10:11 am | Reply
  20. Nearby RV Repair


    June 22, 2021 at 9:06 am | Reply
  21. health memberships near me

    This website was... how do I say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something which helped me. Appreciate it!


    June 22, 2021 at 2:57 am | Reply
  22. Leisure Travel Van Repair Shop Near Me


    June 22, 2021 at 1:39 am | Reply
  23. rentals near me


    June 22, 2021 at 12:32 am | Reply
  24. RV Repair Santa Ana


    June 22, 2021 at 12:07 am | Reply
  25. academy sports near me

    I could not refrain from commenting. Perfectly written!


    June 21, 2021 at 11:44 pm | Reply
  26. pharmaceptica

    malaria drugs list https://www.pharmaceptica.com/

    June 21, 2021 at 8:03 pm | Reply
  27. Camper Repair Near Me

    I'd like to thank you for the efforts you have put in writing this site. I'm hoping to view the same high-grade content by you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own, personal website now 😉


    June 21, 2021 at 7:42 pm | Reply
  28. RV Service Repair Near Me

    I love reading a post that can make people think. Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!


    June 21, 2021 at 7:04 pm | Reply
  29. Maintenance Shop


    June 21, 2021 at 5:39 pm | Reply
  30. RV Repairs Near Me


    June 21, 2021 at 4:44 pm | Reply
  31. Mercedes Sprinter Service Near Me

    You are so awesome! I do not believe I have read through anything like that before. So nice to find somebody with some original thoughts on this subject matter. Seriously.. thanks for starting this up. This web site is one thing that's needed on the internet, someone with some originality!


    June 21, 2021 at 4:05 pm | Reply
  32. hobby lobby near me

    Everything is very open with a really clear explanation of the issues. It was truly informative. Your website is useful. Many thanks for sharing!


    June 21, 2021 at 10:10 am | Reply
  33. Camper Repair Places Near Me


    June 21, 2021 at 8:23 am | Reply
  34. Sprinter Repair Near Me


    June 21, 2021 at 6:20 am | Reply
  35. burger places near me


    June 21, 2021 at 4:19 am | Reply
  36. Nearby RV Repairs

    Iím amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I encounter a blog thatís both educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is something that too few men and women are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy that I found this in my hunt for something concerning this.


    June 21, 2021 at 4:03 am | Reply
  37. hot springs near me

    Spot on with this write-up, I seriously feel this website needs much more attention. Iíll probably be back again to see more, thanks for the advice!


    June 21, 2021 at 2:18 am | Reply
  38. RV Repair California


    June 21, 2021 at 12:59 am | Reply
  39. chiropractor near me


    June 21, 2021 at 12:51 am | Reply
  40. Lucas Pinelo


    June 20, 2021 at 8:00 pm | Reply
  41. Leanora Mounts


    June 20, 2021 at 5:37 pm | Reply
  42. Eddy Sleper

    Hello! I just would like to give you a big thumbs up for your excellent information you've got right here on this post. I will be coming back to your blog for more soon.


    June 20, 2021 at 5:26 pm | Reply
  43. Sang Vannote

    Good blog post. I definitely love this site. Stick with it!


    June 20, 2021 at 3:27 pm | Reply
  44. Rowena Hulings

    I truly love your blog.. Excellent colors & theme. Did you build this web site yourself? Please reply back as Iím trying to create my own blog and would love to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is called. Thank you!


    June 20, 2021 at 2:33 pm | Reply
  45. Camila Diza


    June 20, 2021 at 2:02 pm | Reply
  46. Local Marketing Agencies


    June 20, 2021 at 8:19 am | Reply
  47. Internet Marketing Business

    Hey there! I simply wish to offer you a big thumbs up for the great info you have here on this post. I will be coming back to your website for more soon.


    June 20, 2021 at 4:56 am | Reply
  48. Digital Marketing Specialist


    June 20, 2021 at 4:24 am | Reply
  49. Google Marketing Agencies

    Everything is very open with a precise clarification of the challenges. It was definitely informative. Your site is very helpful. Thanks for sharing!


    June 20, 2021 at 3:02 am | Reply
  50. Nearby RV Repairs

    Pretty! This was an incredibly wonderful article. Thank you for providing these details.


    June 19, 2021 at 2:24 pm | Reply
  51. Nearby RV Repairs

    Great web site you've got here.. Itís difficult to find good quality writing like yours nowadays. I honestly appreciate people like you! Take care!!


    June 19, 2021 at 9:58 am | Reply
  52. RV Repair Near Me Now


    June 19, 2021 at 9:16 am | Reply
  53. Camper Repair Shops Near Me

    I quite like reading a post that can make people think. Also, many thanks for permitting me to comment!


    June 19, 2021 at 6:39 am | Reply
  54. RV Repair Orange County


    June 19, 2021 at 6:18 am | Reply
  55. Sprinter Repair Costa Mesa

    Hi, I do think this is a great website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I'm going to revisit once again since i have book-marked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people.


    June 19, 2021 at 5:17 am | Reply
  56. RV Repair Huntington Beach


    June 19, 2021 at 3:41 am | Reply
  57. Camper Repairs Near Me

    I'd like to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this website. I'm hoping to view the same high-grade blog posts by you in the future as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own site now 😉


    June 18, 2021 at 10:48 pm | Reply
  58. RV Repair Seal Beach

    Iím amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I encounter a blog thatís both educative and engaging, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. I'm very happy I came across this during my hunt for something relating to this.


    June 18, 2021 at 10:04 pm | Reply
  59. flooring near me


    June 18, 2021 at 9:57 pm | Reply
  60. Camper Repair Near Me


    June 18, 2021 at 6:57 pm | Reply
  61. RV Repair Orange County California


    June 18, 2021 at 6:54 pm | Reply
  62. RV Repair Fountain Valley


    June 18, 2021 at 6:29 pm | Reply
  63. RV Repair San Clemente California

    Wonderful post! We will be linking to this great article on our site. Keep up the great writing.


    June 18, 2021 at 5:32 pm | Reply
  64. basement remodelers


    June 18, 2021 at 4:13 pm | Reply
  65. RV Repair Shops Near Me Now

    Good post. I learn something new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It will always be exciting to read content from other writers and practice something from other sites.


    June 18, 2021 at 1:48 pm | Reply
  66. office depot near me

    Itís difficult to find educated people in this particular topic, but you sound like you know what youíre talking about! Thanks


    June 18, 2021 at 9:08 am | Reply
  67. body shop near me

    Iím amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thatís equally educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you have hit the nail on the head. The problem is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. I'm very happy I found this in my search for something concerning this.


    June 18, 2021 at 7:59 am | Reply
  68. trucks for sale near me


    June 18, 2021 at 6:28 am | Reply
  69. jcpenney near me


    June 18, 2021 at 5:26 am | Reply
  70. used tires near me

    You are so awesome! I don't believe I have read a single thing like that before. So wonderful to discover another person with a few genuine thoughts on this topic. Seriously.. thank you for starting this up. This web site is something that is needed on the web, someone with some originality!


    June 18, 2021 at 5:19 am | Reply
  71. qt near me

    Everyone loves it when folks come together and share thoughts. Great site, continue the good work!


    June 18, 2021 at 4:56 am | Reply
  72. electronic stores near me


    June 18, 2021 at 2:47 am | Reply
  73. recycling near me

    An intriguing discussion is definitely worth comment. I believe that you need to write more on this topic, it may not be a taboo matter but typically people do not discuss such subjects. To the next! Many thanks!!


    June 18, 2021 at 2:40 am | Reply
  74. used furniture near me


    June 17, 2021 at 10:46 pm | Reply
  75. smiths near me


    June 17, 2021 at 6:50 pm | Reply
  76. liquor store open near me

    There is definately a lot to find out about this subject. I like all of the points you made.


    June 17, 2021 at 6:30 pm | Reply
  77. lenscrafters near me

    Pretty! This has been an incredibly wonderful article. Thank you for providing these details.


    June 17, 2021 at 2:04 pm | Reply
  78. discount tire near me

    An outstanding share! I've just forwarded this onto a colleague who had been doing a little homework on this. And he actually bought me breakfast because I discovered it for him... lol. So allow me to reword this.... Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending some time to discuss this issue here on your web site.


    June 17, 2021 at 1:09 pm | Reply
  79. RV Repairs Near My Location


    June 17, 2021 at 10:18 am | Reply
  80. RV Repair Shops Nearby

    Next time I read a blog, Hopefully it does not disappoint me just as much as this one. After all, I know it was my choice to read through, but I really believed you'd have something useful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of moaning about something that you could fix if you were not too busy searching for attention.


    June 17, 2021 at 10:14 am | Reply
  81. Sprinter Repair Shops Near Me

    Can I simply say what a relief to discover an individual who genuinely understands what they're talking about over the internet. You actually understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. A lot more people need to check this out and understand this side of the story. I was surprised that you are not more popular because you surely have the gift.


    June 17, 2021 at 8:52 am | Reply
  82. Camper Repair Near Me

    I really like it when people come together and share views. Great site, stick with it!


    June 17, 2021 at 6:17 am | Reply
  83. RV Repair Seal Beach


    June 17, 2021 at 2:19 am | Reply
  84. winco near me

    That is a very good tip especially to those new to the blogosphere. Brief but very accurate infoÖ Thanks for sharing this one. A must read post!


    June 17, 2021 at 1:42 am | Reply
  85. emergency vet near me

    Pretty! This was an incredibly wonderful post. Thank you for supplying this information.


    June 16, 2021 at 6:02 pm | Reply
  86. game stop near me


    June 16, 2021 at 4:59 pm | Reply
  87. RV Repair Mission Viejo

    You ought to be a part of a contest for one of the best blogs on the internet. I will recommend this site!


    June 16, 2021 at 10:52 am | Reply
  88. RV Repair Near Me

    I love reading an article that can make men and women think. Also, many thanks for allowing me to comment!


    June 16, 2021 at 4:31 am | Reply
  89. RV Repairs Near Me

    I really like reading an article that can make men and women think. Also, many thanks for allowing for me to comment!


    June 16, 2021 at 2:44 am | Reply
  90. RV Repair Huntington Beach

    The next time I read a blog, I hope that it doesn't disappoint me just as much as this particular one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read, nonetheless I actually believed you would have something interesting to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of crying about something that you could possibly fix if you were not too busy looking for attention.


    June 16, 2021 at 2:04 am | Reply
  91. RV Repair Shops Nearby

    Everything is very open with a very clear description of the challenges. It was really informative. Your site is very useful. Many thanks for sharing!


    June 16, 2021 at 12:48 am | Reply
  92. RV Repair Orange County California

    Wonderful post! We will be linking to this particularly great article on our website. Keep up the great writing.


    June 15, 2021 at 7:35 pm | Reply
  93. RV Repair Santa Ana


    June 15, 2021 at 6:50 pm | Reply
  94. RV Repair Orange County California


    June 15, 2021 at 4:47 pm | Reply
  95. RV Repair


    June 15, 2021 at 1:28 pm | Reply
  96. RV Repairs Near My Location


    June 15, 2021 at 1:11 pm | Reply
  97. RV Repair Santa Ana

    Way cool! Some extremely valid points! I appreciate you writing this post and the rest of the website is really good.


    June 15, 2021 at 7:58 am | Reply
  98. RV Repair Shop Near Me


    June 15, 2021 at 6:56 am | Reply
  99. RV Repair Near Me

    After exploring a handful of the blog articles on your web page, I truly like your way of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back soon. Take a look at my web site too and let me know what you think.


    June 15, 2021 at 5:31 am | Reply
  100. RV Repair San Clemente California

    I used to be able to find good advice from your blog posts.


    June 15, 2021 at 3:54 am | Reply
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Post a comment


CNN welcomes a lively and courteous discussion as long as you follow the Rules of Conduct set forth in our Terms of Service. Comments are not pre-screened before they post. You agree that anything you post may be used, along with your name and profile picture, in accordance with our Privacy Policy and the license you have granted pursuant to our Terms of Service.